Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability

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16. Polar Regions (Arctic and Antarctic) Contents

Executive Summary

Climate Changes in the 20th Century
Feedbacks and Interactions
Vulnerability and Adaptation

16.1. Polar Regions

16.1.1. Previous Work—Summary of Special Report on Regional Impacts of Climate Change
16.1.2. Distinctive Characteristics of Polar Regions
16.1.3. Climate Change in the 20th Century The Arctic The Antarctic

16.1.4. Scenarios of Future Change

16.2. Key Regional Concerns

16.2.1. Changes in Ice Sheets and Glaciers
16.2.2. Changes around the Antarctic Peninsula
16.2.3. Changes in the Southern Ocean and Impacts on its Life Overview Role of Ocean Changes Role of Ice Shelves Impacts on Biology of Southern Ocean

16.2.4. Changes in Sea Ice Sea Ice in the Arctic Ocean Sea Ice in the Southern Ocean

16.2.5. Permafrost Temperature Archive Predicted Changes in Permafrost Environmental Impacts

16.2.6. Arctic Hydrology Changes in Precipitation, Snow Accumulation, and Spring Melt Surface Water Budgets and Wetlands Ecological Impact of Changing Runoff Regimes Sensitivity of Arctic Ocean to River Flow

16.2.7. Changes in Arctic Biota Impacts of Climate Change on Arctic Terrestrial Environments Response of Arctic Plant Communities Changes in Arctic Animals

16.2.8. Impact on Human Communities in the Arctic Impacts on Indigenous Peoples Impacts on Economic Activity Oil and gas extraction Buildings and industrial facilities Transportation and communications Pollution associated with increased economic activity Fisheries Reindeer husbandry

16.3. Synthesis

16.3.1. Feedbacks and Interactions—Polar Drivers
16.3.2 Adaptation Potential and Vulnerability
16.3.3. Development, Sustainability, and Equity
16.3.4. Uncertainties and Risks



Lead Authors:
J.O. Hagen (Norway), R. Jefferies (Canada), H. Marchant (Australia), F. Nelson (USA), T. Prowse (Canada), D.G. Vaughan (UK)

Contributing Authors:
I. Borzenkova (Russia), D. Forbes (Canada), K.M. Hinkel (USA), K. Kobak (Russia), H. Loeng (Norway), T. Root (USA), N. Shiklomanov (Russia), B. Sinclair (New Zealand), P. Skvarca (Argentina)

Review Editors:
Qin Dahe (China) and B. Maxwell (Canada)

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