Working Group III: Mitigation

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Macroeconomic costs
Usually measured as changes in Gross Domestic Product or growth in Gross Domestic Product, or as loss of “welfare” or loss of consumption.

Marginal cost pricing
The pricing of commercial goods and services such that the price equals the additional cost that arises from the expansion of production by one additional unit.

Market barriers
In the context of mitigation of climate change, conditions that prevent or impede the diffusion of cost-effective technologies or practices that would mitigate greenhouse gas emissions.

Market-based incentives
Measures intended to use price mechanisms (e.g., taxes and tradable permits) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Market equilibrium
The point at which demand for goods and services equals the supply; often described in terms of the level of prices, determined in a competitive market, that “clears” the market.

Market penetration
Market penetration is the share of a given market that is provided by a particular good or service at a given time.

Market potential
The portion of the economic potential for greenhouse gas emissions reductions or energy efficiency improvements that could be achieved under forecast market conditions, assuming no new policies and measures. See also economic potential, socio-economic potential, and technological potential.

Methane (CH4)
Methane is one of the six greenhouse gases to be mitigated under the Kyoto Protocol.

Methane recovery
Method by which methane emissions, for example from coal mines or waste sites, are captured and then reused either as a fuel, or for some other economic purpose (e.g., reinjection in oil or gas reserves).

Meeting of the Parties (to the Kyoto Protocol) (MoP)
Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change serving as the Meeting of the parties to the Kyoto Protocol. It is the supreme body of the Kyoto Protocol.

An anthropogenic intervention to reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases. See also biological options, geo-engineering.

Mitigative capacity
The social, political, and economic structures and conditions that are required for effective mitigation.

Montreal Protocol

The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was adopted in Montreal in 1987, and subsequently adjusted and amended in London (1990), Copenhagen (1992), Vienna (1995), Montreal (1997) and Beijing (1999). It controls the consumption and production of chlorine- and bromine-containing chemicals that destroy stratospheric ozone, such as chlorofluorocarbons, methyl chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and many others.

See Meeting of the Parties (to the Kyoto Protocol).

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