IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group I: The Physical Science Basis


Abdalati, W., et al., 2001: Outlet glacier and margin elevation changes: Near-coastal thinning of the Greenland ice sheet. J. Geophys. Res., 106(D24), 33729–33741.

Abdalati, W., et al., 2004: Elevation changes of ice caps in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. J. Geophys. Res., 109, F04007, doi:10.1029/2003JF000045.

Ackley, S., P. Wadhams, J.C. Comiso, and A.P. Worby, 2003: Decadal decrease of Antarctic sea ice extent inferred from whaling records revisited on the basis of historical and modern sea ice records. Polar Res., 22(1), 19–25.

Agnew, T. and S. Howell, 2003: The use of operational ice charts for evaluating passive microwave ice concentration data. Atmos.-Ocean, 41(4), 317–331.

Agnew, T., H. Le, and T. Hirose, 1997: Estimation of large-scale sea-ice motion from SSM/I 85.5 GHz imagery. Ann. Glaciol., 25, 305–311.

Allard, M., B. Wang, and J.A. Pilon, 1995: Recent cooling along the southern shore of Hudson Strait Quebec, Canada, documented from permafrost temperature measurements. Arctic and Alpine Res., 27, 157–166.

Alley, R.B., P.U. Clark, P. Huybrechts, and I. Joughin, 2005a: Ice-sheet and sea-level changes. Science, 310, 456–460.

Alley, R.B., T.K. Dupont, B.R. Parizek, and S. Anandakrishnan, 2005b: Access of surface meltwater to beds of sub-freezing glaciers: preliminary insights. Ann. Glaciol., 40, 8–14.

Arendt, A.A., et al., 2002: Rapid wastage of Alaska glaciers and their contribution to rising sea level. Science, 297, 382–386.

Armstrong, R.L. and M.J. Brodzik, 2001: Recent Northern Hemisphere snow extent: A comparison of data derived from visible and microwave satellite sensors. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28, 3673–3676.

Bamber, J.L., R.L. Layberry, and S.P. Gogineni, 2001: A new ice thickness and bed data set for the Greenland ice sheet, 1. Measurement, data reduction, and errors. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 33733–33780.

Bamber, J.L., W. Krabill, V. Raper, and J. Dowdeswell, 2004: Anomalous recent growth of part of a large Arctic ice cap: Austfonna, Svalbard. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(12), L12402, doi: 10.1029/2004GL019667.

Bamzai, A.S., 2003: Relationship between snow cover variability and Arctic Oscillation Index on a hierarchy of time scales. Int. J. Climatol., 23, 131–142.

Belchansky, G. I., D.C. Douglas, V.A. Eremeev, and N.G. Platonov, 2005: Variations in the Arctic’s multiyear sea ice cover: A neural network analysis of SMMR-SSM/I data, 1979-2004. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L09605, doi:10.1029/2005GL022395.

Box, J.E., et al., 2006: Greenland ice-sheet surface mass balance variability (1988-2004) from calibrated Polar MM5 output. J. Clim., 19(12), 2783–2800.

Broll, G., C. Tarnocai, and J. Gould, 2003: Long-term high Arctic ecosystem monitoring in Quttinirpaaq National Park, Ellesmere Island, Canada. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Permafrost, 21-25 July 2003, Zurich, Switzerland [Phillips, M., S.M. Springman, and L.U. Arenson (eds.)]. A.A. Balkema, Lisse, the Netherlands, pp. 89–94.

Brown, J., K.M. Hinkel, and F.E. Nelson, 2000: The Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) program: research design and initial results. Polar Geogr., 24(3), 166–258.

Brown, R.D., 2000: Northern hemisphere snow cover variability and change, 1915-97. J. Clim., 13, 2339–2355.

Brown, R.D., and P. Coté, 1992: Interannual variability of landfast ice thickness in the Canadian high Arctic, 1950-1989. Arctic, 45, 273–284.

Carrasco, J.F., G. Casassa, and J. Quintana, 2005: Changes of the 0°C isotherm and the equilibrium line altitude in central Chile during the last quarter of the XXth century. Hydrolog. Sci. J., 50, 933–948.

Cavalieri, D.J., 1992: The validation of geophysical products using multisensor data. In: Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice [Carsey, F.D. (ed.)]. Geophysical Monograph 68, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp 233–242.

Chinn, T.J.H., S. Winkler, M.J. Salinger, and N. Haakensen, 2005: Recent glacier advances in Norway and New Zealand: a comparison of their glaciological and meteorological causes. Geografiska Annaler, 87A(1), 141–157.

Clare, G.R., B.B. Fizharris, T.J.H. Chinn, and M.J. Salinger, 2002: Interannual variation in end-of-summer snowlines of the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and relationships with Southern Hemisphere atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature patterns. Int. J. Climatol., 22, 107–120.

Clark, M.P., M.C. Serreze, and D.A. Robinson, 1999: Atmospheric controls on Eurasian snow extent. Int. J. Climatol., 19, 27–40.

Clark, P.U., R.B. Alley, and D. Pollard, 1999: Northern hemisphere ice-sheet influences on global climate change. Science, 286, 1103–1111.

Cogley, J.G., 2005: Mass and energy balances of glaciers and ice sheets. In: Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences [Anderson, M. (ed.)]. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, pp 2555–2573.

Comiso, J.C., 2002: A rapidly declining perennial sea ice cover in the Arctic. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 1956–1959.

Comiso, J.C., 2003: Large scale characteristics and variability of the global sea ice cover. In: Sea Ice - An Introduction to its Physics, Biology, Chemistry, and Geology [Thomas, D. and G.S. Dieckmann (eds.)]. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, pp. 112–142.

Cook, A., A. Fox, D. Vaughan, and J. Ferigno, 2005: Retreating glacier fronts on the Antarctic Peninsula over the past half century. Science, 308, 541–544.

Couture, R., et al., 2003: On the hazards to infrastructure in the Canadian North associated with thawing of permafrost. In: Proceedings of Geohazards 2003, 3rd Canadian Conference on Geotechnique and Natural Hazards. Canadian Geotechnical Society, Alliston, Ontario, pp. 97–104.

Cuffey, K.M., 2001: Interannual variability of elevation on the Greenland ice sheet: effects of firn densification, and establishment of a benchmark. Journal of Glaciol., 47(158), 369–377.

Cullen, N.J., et al., 2006: Kilimanjaro glaciers: Recent areal extent from satellite data and new interpretation of observed 20th century retreat rates. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L16502, doi:10.1029/2006GL027084.

Curran, M.A.J., et al., 2003: Ice core evidence for Antarctic sea ice decline since the 1950s. Science, 302(14), 1203–1206.

Davis, C.H., et al., 2005: Snowfall-driven growth in East Antarctic ice sheet mitigates recent sea-level rise. Science, 308, 1898–1901, doi:10.1126/science.1110662.

de la Mare, W.K., 1997: Abrupt mid-20th century decline in Antarctic sea ice extent from whaling records. Nature, 389, 57–61.

Derksen, C., A. Walker, E. LeDrew, and B. Goodison, 2003: Combining SMMR and SSM/I data for time series analysis of central North American snow water equivalent. J. Hydrometeorol., 4(2), 304–316.

DesJarlais, C., 2004: S’adapter aux Changements Climatiques. Ouranos, Montreal, 91pp.

Doran, P.T., et al., 2002: Antarctic climate cooling and terrestrial ecosystem response. Nature, 415, 517–520.

Duguay, C.R., et al., 2003: Ice-cover variability on shallow lakes at high latitudes: model simulations and observations. Hydrolog. Process., 17, 3465–3483.

Duguay, C.R., et al., 2006: Recent trends in Canadian lake ice cover. Hydrological Processes, 20, 781–801.

Dumas, J.A., G.M. Flato, and A.J. Weaver, 2003: The impact of varying atmospheric forcing on the thickness of arctic multi-year sea ice. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(18), 1918–1921.

Dupont, T.K., and R.B. Alley, 2005: Assessment of the importance of ice-shelf buttressing to ice-sheet flow. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L04503, doi:10.1029/2004GL022024.

Dupont, T.K., and R.B. Alley, 2006: The importance of small ice shelves in sea-level rise. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L09503, doi:10.1029/2005GL025665.

Dye, D.G., 2002: Variability and trends in the annual snow-cover cycle in Northern Hemisphere land areas, 1972–2000. Hydrolog. Process., 16, 3065–3077.

Dyurgerov, M., and J. Dwyer, 2000. The steepening of glacier mass balance gradients with Northern Hemisphere warming. Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie, 36, 107–118.

Dyurgerov, M., and M.F. Meier, 2005: Glaciers and the Changing Earth System: A 2004 Snapshot. Occasional Paper 58, Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, 118 pp.

Falarz, M., 2002: Long-term variability in reconstructed and observed snow cover over the last 100 winter seasons in Cracow and Zakopane (southern Poland). Clim. Res., 19(3), 247–256.

Favier, V., P. Wagnon, and P. Ribstein, 2004: Glaciers of the outer and inner tropics: A different behaviour but a common response to climatic forcing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L16403, doi:10.1029/2004GL020654.

Fedorov, A., and P. Konstantinov, 2003: Observations of surface dynamics with thermokarst initiation, Yukechi site, central Yakutia. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Permafrost, 21-25 July 2003, Zurich, Switzerland [Phillips, M., S.M. Springman, and L.U. Arenson (eds.)]. A.A. Balkema, Lisse, the Netherlands, pp. 239–243.

Fichefet, T., B. Tartinville, and H. Goosse, 2003: Antarctic sea ice variability during 1958-1999: A simulation with a global ice-ocean model. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C3), 3102–3113.

Fitzharris, B.B., and C.E. Garr, 1995: Simulation of past variability in seasonal snow in the Southern Alps, New Zealand. Ann. Glaciol., 21, 377–382.

Fountain, A.G., T.A. Neumann, P.L. Glenn, and T. Chinn, 2004: Can warming induce advances of polar glaciers, Taylor Valley, Antarctica. J. Glaciol., 50(171), 556–564.

Francou, B., et al., 2003: Tropical climate change recorded by a glacier in the central Andes during the last decades of the twentieth century: Chacaltaya, Bolivia, 16°S. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D5), 4154, doi:10.1029/2002JD002959.

Francou, B., M. Vuille, V. Favier, and B. Cáceres, 2004: New evidence for an ENSO impact on low-latitude glaciers: Antizana 15, Andes of Ecuador, 0°28’S. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D18106, doi:10.1029/2003JD004484.

Frauenfeld, O.W., T. Zhang, R.G. Barry, and D. Gilichinsky, 2004: Interdecadal changes in seasonal freeze and thaw depths in Russia. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D5101, doi:10.1029/2003JD004245.

Fujita, K., and Y. Ageta, 2000: Effect of summer accumulation on glacier mass balance on the Tibetan Plateau revealed by mass-balance model. J. Glaciol., 46(153), 244–252.

Gavrilov, P.P. and P.V. Efremov, 2003: Effects of cryogenic processes on Yakutia landscapes under climate warming. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Permafrost, 21-25 July 2003, Zurich, Switzerland [Phillips, M., S.M. Springman, and L.U. Arenson (eds.)]. A.A. Balkema, Lisse, the Netherlands, pp. 277–282.

Georges, C., 2004: The 20th century glacier fluctuations in the Cordillera Blanca (Perú). Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Res., 36(1), 100–107.

Greene, A.M., 2005: A time constant for hemispheric glacier mass balance. J. Glaciol., 51(174), 353–362.

Groisman, P.Ya, T.R. Karl, and R.W. Knight, 1994: Observed impact of snow cover on the heat balance and the rise of continental spring temperatures. Science, 263, 198–200.

Groisman, P.Ya., et al., 2004: Contemporary changes of the hydrological cycle over the contiguous United States: Trends derived from in situ observations. J. Hydrometeorol., 5, 64–85.

Gudkovich, Z.M., 1961: Relation of the ice drift in the Arctic Basin to ice conditions in the Soviet Arctic seas. Tr. Okeanogr. Kom. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 11, 14–21 (in Russian).

Haas, C., 2004: Late-summer sea ice thickness variability in the Arctic Transpolar Drift 1991–2001 derived from ground-based electromagnetic sounding. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L09402, doi:10.1029/2003GL019394.

Haeberli, W., and C.R. Burn, 2002: Natural hazards in forests: glacier and permafrost effects as related to climate change. In: Environmental Change and Geomorphic Hazards in Forests [Sidle, R.C. (ed.)]. IUFRO Research Series 9, CABI Publishing, Wallingford and New York, pp. 167–202.

Hagen, J.O., K. Melvold, F. Pinglot, and J.A. Dowdeswell, 2003: On the net mass balance of the glaciers and ice caps in Svalbard, Norwegian Arctic. Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Res., 35(2), 264–270.

Halsey, L.A., D.H. Vitt, and S.C. Zoltai, 1995: Disequilibrium response of permafrost in boreal continental western Canada to climate change. Clim. Change, 30, 57–73.

Hanna, E., et al., 2005: Runoff and mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet: 1958-2003. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D13108, doi:10.1029/2004JD005641.

Hanna, E., et al., 2006: Observed and modeled Greenland Ice Sheet snow accumulation, 1958–2003, and links with regional climate forcing. J. Clim., 19(3), 344–358.

Hansen, J., and L. Nazarenko, 2004: Soot climate forcing via snow and ice albedos. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 101(2), 423–428.

Harris, C., et al., 2003: Warming permafrost in European mountains. Global Planet. Change, 39, 215–225.

Hastenrath, S., 2005: The glaciers of Mount Kenya 1899-2004. Erdkunde, 59, 120–125.

Heil, P., and I. Allison, 2002: Long-term fast-ice variability off Davis and Mawson stations, Antarctica. In: Ice in the Environment: Proceedings of the 16th IAHR International Symposium on Ice (Volume 1), Dunedin, New Zealand, 2-6 December 2002 [Squire, V., and P. Langhorne (eds)]. University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ, pp. 360–367.

Hellmer, H., S. Jacobs, and A. Jenkins, 1998: Oceanic erosion of a floating Antarctic glacier in the Amundsen Sea. In: Ocean, Ice, and Atmosphere: Interactions at the Antarctic Continental Margin [Jacobs, S. and R. Weiss (eds.)]. Antarctic Research Series 75, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 83–99.

Hennessy, K.J., et al., 2003: The Impact of Climate Change on Snow Conditions in Mainland Australia. CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, Australia, 47 pp, http://www.cmar.csiro.au/e-print/open/hennessy_2003a.pdf.

Hewitt, K., 2005: The Karakoram anomaly? Glacier expansion and the “elevation effect”, Karakoram Himalaya. Mountain Research and Development, 25(4), 332–340.

Hill, B.T., A. Ruffman, and K. Drinkwater. 2002: Historical record of the incidence of sea ice on the Scotian Shelf and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In: Ice in the Environment: Proceedings of the 16th IAHR International Symposium on Ice (Volume 1). Dunedin, New Zealand, 2-6 December 2002 [Squire, V., and P. Langhorne (eds)]. University of Otago, Dunedin, NZ.

Hilmer, M., and T. Jung, 2000: Evidence for a recent change in the link between the North Atlantic Oscillation and Arctic sea ice export. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 989–992.

Hinzman, L.D., et al., 2003: Hydrological variations among watersheds with varying degrees of permafrost. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Permafrost, 21-25 July 2003, Zurich, Switzerland [Phillips, M., S.M. Springman, and L.U. Arenson (eds.)]. A.A. Balkema, Lisse, the Netherlands, pp. 407–411.

Hinzman, L.D., et al., 2005: Evidence and implications of recent climate change in northern Alaska and other arctic regions. Clim. Change, 72(3), 251–298.

Holloway, G., and T. Sou, 2002: Has Arctic sea ice rapidly thinned? J. Clim., 15, 1691–1701.

Howat, I.M., I. Joughin, S. Tulaczyk, and S. Gogineni, 2005: Rapid retreat and acceleration of Helheim Glacier, east Greenland. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L22502, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024737.

Huybrechts, P., 2002: Sea-level changes at the LGM from ice-dynamic reconstructions of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets during the glacial cycles. Quat. Sci. Rev., 21(1–3), 203–231.

Huybrechts, P., J. Gregory, I. Janssens, and M. Wild, 2004: Modelling Antarctic and Greenland volume changes during the 20th and 21st centuries forced by GCM time slice integrations. Global Planet. Change, 42(1–4), 83–105.

Hyvärinen, V., 2003: Trends and characteristics of hydrological time series in Finland. Nord. Hydrol., 34(1–2), 71–90.

IPCC, 2001: Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Houghton, J.T., et al. (eds)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 881 pp.

Isaksen, K., P. Holmlund, J.L. Sollid, and C. Harris, 2001: Three deep alpine-permafrost boreholes in Svalbard and Scandinavia. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 12, 13–25.

Jacka, T.H., et al., 2004: Recommendations for the collection and synthesis of Antarctic Ice Sheet mass balance data. Global Planet. Change, 42(1–4), 1–15.

Jacobs, S.S., C.F. Giulivi, and P.A. Mele, 2002: Freshening of the Ross Sea during the late 20th century. Science, 297(5580), 386–389.

Johannessen, O.M, E.V. Shalina, and M.W. Miles, 1999: Satellite evidence for an Arctic sea ice cover in transformation. Science, 286, 1937–1939.

Johannessen, O.M., K. Khvorostovsky, M.W. Miles, and L.P. Bobylev, 2005: Recent ice-sheet growth in the interior of Greenland. Science, 310, 1013–1016.

Johannessen, O.M., et al., 2004: Arctic climate change – observed and modelled temperature and sea ice. Tellus, 56A, 328–341.

Jones, P.D., and A. Moberg, 2003: Hemispheric and large-scale surface air temperature variations: an extensive revision and an update to 2001. J Climate, 16, 206–223.

Jorgenson, M.T., and J. Brown, 2005: Classification of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea Coast and estimation of carbon and sediment inputs from coastal erosion. Geo-Marine Lett., 25, 69–80.

Joughin, I., and S. Tulaczyk, 2002: Positive mass balance of the Ross Ice Streams, West Antarctica. Science, 295(5554), 476–480.

Joughin, I., and L. Padman, 2003: Melting and freezing beneath Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(9), 1477, doi:10.1029/2003GL016941.

Joughin, I., W. Abdalati, and M. Fahnestock, 2004: Large fluctuations in speed on Greenland’s Jakobshavn Isbræ glacier. Nature, 432, 608–610.

Joughin, I., et al., 2003: Timing of recent accelerations of Pine Island Glacier, Antarctica. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(13), 1706, doi:10.1029/2003GL017609.

Kane, D.L., L.D. Hinzman, and J.P. Zarling, 1991: Thermal response of the active layer to climate warming in a permafrost environment. Cold Regions Sci. Technol., 19, 111–122.

Kaser, G., and H. Osmaston, 2002: Tropical Glaciers. UNESCO International Hydrological Series. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 207pp.

Kaser, G., et al., 2003: The impact of glaciers on the runoff and the reconstruction of mass balance history from hydrological data in the tropical Cordillera Blanca, Peru. J. Hydrol., 282, 130–144.

Kjøllmoen, B.E., 2005: Glaciological Investigations in Norway in 2004. Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo, http://www.nve.no/FileArchive/176/Glac_invest2004.pdf.

Klein, A.G., and J.L. Kincaid, 2006: Retreat of glaciers on Puncak Jaya, Irian Jaya, determined from 2000 and 2002 IKONOS satellite images. J. Glaciol., 52(176), 65–79.

Koeberle, C., and R. Gerdes, 2003: Mechanisms determining the variability of Arctic sea ice conditions and export. J. Clim., 16, 2843–2858.

Krabill, W.B., et al., 2000: Greenland Ice Sheet: High elevation balance and peripheral thinning. Science, 289, 428–430.

Krabill, W.B., et al., 2002: Aircraft laser altimetry measurement of elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet: Technique and accuracy assessment. J. Geodyn., 34, 357–376.

Krabill, W.B., et al., 2004: Greenland Ice Sheet: Increased coastal thinning. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L24402, doi:10.1029/2004GL021533.

Kwok, R., 2000: Recent changes of the Arctic Ocean sea ice motion associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett, 27(6), 775–778.

Kwok, R., 2002: Sea ice concentration from passive microwave radiometry and openings from SAR ice motion. Geophys. Res. Lett, 29(10), doi:10.1029/2002GL014787.

Kwok, R., and D.A. Rothrock, 1999: Variability of Fram Strait ice flux and North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 5177–5189.

Kwok, R., G.F. Cunningham, and S.S. Pang, 2004: Fram Strait sea ice outflow. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C01009, doi:10.1029/2003JC001785.

Kwok, R., et al., 1998: Assessment of sea ice motion from sequential passive microwave observations with ERS and buoy ice motions. J. Geophys. Res., 103(C4), 8191–8213.

Lachenbruch, A.H., and B.V. Marshall, 1986: Changing climate: geothermal evidence from permafrost in the Alaskan Arctic. Science, 234, 689–696.

Laxon, S., N. Peacock, and D. Smith, 2003: High interannual variability of sea ice thickness in the Arctic region. Nature, 425, 947–950.

Legresy, B., F. Remy, and F. Blarel, 2006: Along track repeat altimetry for ice sheets and continental surface studies. In: Proceedings of the Symposium on 15 years of Progress in Radar Altimetry, Venice, Italy, 13-18 March 2006 [Danesy, D. (ed.)]. ESA-SP614, Paper 181, European Space Agency Publications Division, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 4 pp., http://earth.esa.int/workshops/venice06/participants/181/paper_181_legrsy.pdf.

Lewkowicz, A.G., 1992: Factors influencing the distribution and initiation of active-layer detachment slides on Ellesmere Island, arctic Canada. In: Periglacial Geomorphology [Dixon, J.C. and A.D. Abrahams (eds.)]. Wiley, New York, pp. 223–250.

Liu, S., et al., 2004: Recent progress in glaciological studies in China. J. Geogr. Sci., 14(4), 401–410.

Lo, F., and M.P. Clark, 2001: Relationships between spring snow mass and summer precipitation in the southwestern US associated with the North American monsoon system. J. Clim., 15, 1378–1385.

Lythe, M.B., D.G. Vaughan, and the BEDMAP Group, 2001: BEDMAP: A new ice thickness and subglacial topographic model of Antarctica. J. Geophys. Res., 106(B6), 11335–11351.

Magnuson, J.J., et al., 2000: Historical trends in lake and river ice cover in the Northern Hemisphere. Science, 289, 1743–1746.

Massom, R.A., et al., 2001: Snow on Antarctic sea ice: a review of physical characteristics. Rev. Geophys., 39(3), 413–445

McDonald, K.C., et al., 2004: Variability in springtime thaw in the terrestrial high latitudes: monitoring a major control on the biospheric assimilation of atmospheric CO2 with spaceborne microwave remote sensing. Earth Interactions, 8, Paper No. 20.

McLaren, A.S., R.H. Bourke, J.E. Walsh, and R.L. Weaver, 1994: Variability in sea-ice thickness over the North Pole from 1958 to 1992. In: The Polar Oceans and Their Role in Shaping the Global Environment [Johannessen, O.M., R.D. Muench, and J.E. Overland (eds.)]. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 363–371.

Mitrovica, J.X., et al., 2006: Reanalysis of ancient eclipse, astronomic and geodetic data: A possible route to resolving the enigma of global sea level rise. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 243, 390–399.

Mölg, T., and D.R. Hardy, 2004: Ablation and associated energy balance of a horizontal glacier surface on Kilimanjaro. J. Geophys. Res., 109, 1–13, D16104, doi:10.1029/2003JD004338.

Mölg, T., C. Georges, and G. Kaser, 2003a: The contribution of increased incoming shortwave radiation to the retreat of the Rwenzori Glaciers, East Africa, during the 20th century. Int. J. Climatol., 23, 291–303, doi:10.1002/joc.877.

Mölg, T., D.R. Hardy, and G. Kaser, 2003b: Solar-radiation-maintained glacier recession on Kilimanjaro drawn from combined ice-radiation geometry modeling. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D23), 4731, doi:10.1029/2003JD003546.

Monaghan, A.J., et al., 2006: Insignificant change in Antarctic snowfall since the International Geophysical Year. Science, 313(5788), 827–831.

Morris, E.M., and D. G. Vaughan, 2003: Glaciological climate relationships spatial and temporal variation of surface temperature on the Antarctic Peninsula and the limit of viability of ice shelves. In: Antarctic Peninsula Climate Variability: Historical and Paleoenvironmental Perspectives [Domack, E., et al. (eds.)]. Antarctic Research Series 79, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 61–68.

Mote, P.W., 2006: Climate-driven variability and trends in mountain snowpack in western North America. J. Clim., 19(23), 6209–6220.

Mote, P.W., A.F. Hamlet, M.P. Clark, and D.P. Lettenmaier, 2005: Declining mountain snowpack in western North America. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 86, 39–49, doi:10.1175/BAMS-86-1-39.

Munk, W., 2002: Twentieth century sea level: An enigma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 99, 6550–6555.

Murphy, E.J., A. Clarke, C. Symon, and J. Priddle, 1995: Temporal variation in Antarctic sea-ice: analysis of a long term fast-ice record from the South Orkney Islands. Deep-Sea. Res., 42, l045–1062.

Nagurnyi, A.P., V.G. Korostolev, and V.V. Ivanov, 1999: Multiyear variability of sea ice thickness in the Arctic basin measured by elastic-gravity waves on the ice surface. Meteorol. Hydrol., 3, 72–78 (in Russian).

Nan, Z., Z. Gao, S. Li, and T. Wu, 2003: Permafrost changes in the northern limit of permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the last 30 years. Acta Geogr. Sin., 58(6), 817–823 (in Chinese).

Nelson, F.E., O.A. Anisimov, and N.I. Shiklomanov, 2001: Subsidence risk from thawing permafrost. Nature, 410, 889–890.

Nelson, F.E. (ed.), 2004a: Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) Workshop. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 15(2), 99–188.

Nelson, F.E. (ed.), 2004b: Eurasian contributions to the Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring (CALM) Workshop. Polar Geogr., 28(4), 253–340.

Nesje, A., and S.O. Dahl, 2003: The ‘Little Ice Age’ - only temperature? The Holocene, 13(1), 139–145.

Nesje, A., Ø. Lie, and S.O. Dahl, 2000: Is the North Atlantic Oscillation reflected in Scandinavian glacier mass balance records? J. Quat. Sci., 15(6), 587–601.

Nicholls, N., 2005: Climate variability, climate change and the Australian snow season. Aust. Meteorol. Mag., 54, 177–185.

Oberman, N.G., and G.G. Mazhitova, 2001: Permafrost dynamics in the northeast of European Russia at the end of the 20th century. Norwegian J. Geogr., 55, 241–244.

Oerlemans, J., 2005: Extracting a climate signal from 169 glacier records. Science, 308, 675-677.

Ohmura, A., 2001: Physical basis for the temperature/melt-index method. J. Appl. Meteorol., 40, 753–761.

Ohmura, A., 2004: Cryosphere during the twentieth century. In: The State of the Planet: Frontiers and Challenges in Geophysics [Sparks, R.S.J. and C.J. Hawkesworth (eds.)]. Geophysical Monograph 150, International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, Boulder, CO and American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 239–257.

Omstedt, A., and D. Chen, 2001: Influence of atmospheric circulation on the maximum ice extent in the Baltic Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 106, 4493–4500.

Osterkamp, T.E., 2003: A thermal history of permafrost in Alaska. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Permafrost, 21-25 July 2003, Zurich, Switzerland [Phillips, M., S.M. Springman, and L.U. Arenson (eds.)]. A.A. Balkema, Lisse, the Netherlands, pp. 863–867.

Osterkamp, T.E., 2005: The recent warming of permafrost in Alaska. Global Planet. Change, 49, 187–202, doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2005.09.001.

Parizek, B.R., and R.B. Alley, 2004: Implications of increased Greenland surface melt under global-warming scenarios: ice-sheet simulations. Quat. Sci. Rev., 23(9–10), 1013–1027.

Parizek, B.R., R.B. Alley, and C.L. Hulbe, 2003: Subglacial thermal balance permits ongoing grounding-line retreat along the Siple Coast of West Antarctica. Ann. Glaciol., 36, 251–256.

Parkinson, C.L., 1990: Search for the Little Ice Age in Southern Ocean sea-ice records. Ann. Glaciol., 14, 221–225.

Paterson, W.S.B., 2004: The Physics of Glaciers, Ed. 3.A, Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 496pp.

Pavlov, A.V., 1996: Permafrost-climate monitoring of Russia: analysis of field data and forecast. Polar Geogr., 20(1), 44–64.

Payne, A.J., et al., 2004: Recent dramatic thinning of largest West Antarctic ice stream triggered by oceans. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L23401, doi:10.1029/2004GL021284.

Peltier, W.R., 1998: Postglacial variations in the level of the sea: implications for climate dynamics and solid-earth geophysics. Rev. Geophys., 36, 603–689.

Petkova, N., E. Koleva, and V. Alexandrov, 2004: Snow cover variability and change in mountainous regions of Bulgaria, 1931-2000. Meteorol. Z., 13(1), 19–23.

Pettersson, R., P. Jansson, and P. Holmlund, 2003: Cold surface layer thinning on Storglaciären, Sweden, observed by repeated ground penetrating radar surveys. J. Geophys. Res., 108(F1), 6004, doi:10.1029/2003JF000024.

Polyakov, I.V., et al., 2003: Long-term ice variability in Arctic marginal seas. J. Clim., 16, 2078–2085.

Prieto, R, et al., 2001: Interannual oscillations and trend of snow occurrence in the Andes region since 1885. Aust. Meteorol. Mag., 50(2), 164.

Proshutinsky, A.Y., and M.A. Johnson, 1997: Two circulation regimes of the wind-driven Arctic Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 102(C6), 12493–12514.

Qin, D., S. Liu, and P. Li, 2006: Snow cover distribution, variability, and response to climate change in Western China. J. Clim., 19, 1820–1833.

Qiu, G., Y. Zhou, D. Guo, and Y. Wang, 2000: The map of geocryological regionalization and classification in China. In: Geocryology in China [Zhou, Y., D. Guo, G. Qiu, G. Cheng, and S. Li (eds.)]. Science Press, Beijing (in Chinese). The digital version of the map is available at the National Snow and Ice Data Center, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO, http://nsidc.org/data/ggd603.html.

Rachold, V., et al., 2003: Modern terrigenous organic carbon input to the Arctic Ocean. In: Organic Carbon Cycle in the Arctic Ocean: Present and Past [Stein, R., and R.W. Macdonald (eds.)]. Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 33–55.

Ramillien, G., et al., 2006: Interannual variations of the mass balance of the Antarctica and Greenland ice sheets from GRACE. Global Planet. Change, 53, 198–208.

Randerson, J.T., C.B. Field, I.Y. Fung, and C.B. Tans, 1999: Increases in early season ecosystem uptake explain recent changes in the seasonal cycle of the atmospheric CO2 at high northern latitudes. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 2765–2768.

Raper, S.C.B., and R.J. Braithwaite, 2005: The potential for sea level rise: New estimates from glacier and ice cap area and volume distribution. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L05502, doi:10.1029/2004GL021981.

Rayner, N.A., et al., 2003: Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D14), 4407, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002670.

Ren, J., et al., 2004: Glacier variations and climate warming and drying in the central Himalayas. Chin. Sci. Bull., 49(1), 65–69.

Rignot, E., and S. Jacobs, 2002: Rapid bottom melting widespread near Antarctic Ice Sheet grounding lines. Science, 296, 2020–2023.

Rignot, E., and R.H. Thomas, 2002: Mass balance of polar ice sheets. Science, 297(5586), 1502–1506.

Rignot, E., and P. Kanagaratnam, 2006: Changes in the velocity structure of the Greenland Ice Sheet. Science, 311, 986–990.

Rignot, E., A. Rivera, and G. Casassa, 2003: Contribution of the Patagonia Icefields of South America to sea level rise. Science, 302, 434–437.

Rignot, E., et al., 2004: Accelerated ice discharge from the Antarctic Peninsula following the collapse of Larsen B ice shelf. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(18), L18401, doi:10.1029/2004GL020697.

Rignot, E., et al., 2005: Recent ice loss from the Fleming and other glaciers, Wordie Bay, West Antarctic Peninsula. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(7), 1–4.

Rigor, I.G., J.M. Wallace, and R.L. Colony, 2002: Response of sea ice to the arctic oscillation. J. Clim., 15, 2648– 2663.

Robertson, R., M. Visbek, A. Gordon, and E. Fahrbach, 2002: Long term temperature trends in the deep waters of the Weddell. Deep-Sea Res., 49, 4791–4802.

Robinson, D.A., and A. Frei, 2000: Seasonal variability of northern hemisphere snow extent using visible satellite data. Professional Geogr., 51, 307–314.

Robinson, D.A., K.F. Dewey, and R.R. Heim Jr., 1993: Global snow cover monitoring: an update. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 74, 1689–1696.

Robock, A., M. Mu, K. Vinnikov, and D. Robinson, 2003: Land surface conditions over Eurasia and Indian summer monsoon rainfall. J. Geophys. Res., 108(D4), 4131, doi: 10.1029/2002JD002286.

Romanovsky, V.E., et al., 2002: Permafrost temperature records: Indicator of climate change. Eos, 83(50), 589, 593–594.

Rothrock, D.A., Y. Yu, and G.A. Maykut, 1999: Thinning of the Arctic sea-ice cover. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26(23), 3469.

Rothrock, D.A., J. Zhang, and Y. Yu., 2003: The arctic ice thickness anomaly of the 1990s: A consistent view from observations and models. J. Geophys. Res., 108(C3), 3083, doi:10.1029/2001JC001208.

Saito, K., and J. Cohen, 2003: The potential role of snow cover in forcing interannual variability of the major Northern Hemisphere mode. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30, 1302, doi:10.1029/2002GL016341.

Scambos, T., C. Hulbe, and M. Fahnestock, 2003: Climate-induced ice shelf disintegration in the Antarctic Peninsula. In: Antarctic Peninsula Climate Variability: Historical and Paleoenvironmental Perspectives [Domack, E., et al. (eds.)]. Antarctic Research Series 79, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp. 79–92.

Scambos, T., C. Hulbe, M. Fahnestock, and J. Bohlander, 2000: The link between climate warming and break-up of ice shelves in the Antarctic Peninsula. J. Glaciol., 46, 516–530.

Scambos, T., J. Bohlander, C. Shuman, and P. Skvarca, 2004: Glacier acceleration and thinning after ice shelf collapse in the Larsen B embayment, Antarctica. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L18401, doi:10.1029/2004GL020670.

Scherrer, S.C., C. Appenzeller, and M. Laternser, 2004: Trends in Swiss alpine snow days – the role of local and large scale climate variability. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L13215, doi:10.1029/2004GL020255.

Schmitt, C., Ch. Kottmeier, S. Wassermann, and M. Drinkwater, 2004: Atlas of Antarctic Sea Ice Drift. University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, http://imkhp7.physik.uni-karlsruhe.de/~eisatlas/eisatlas_start.html.

Schneider, D.P., E.J. Steig, and J.C. Comiso, 2004: Recent climate variability in Antarctica from satellite-derived temperature data. J. Clim., 17, 1569–1583.

Sharkhuu, N., 2003: Recent changes in the permafrost of Mongolia. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Permafrost, 21-25 July 2003, Zurich, Switzerland [Phillips, M., S.M. Springman, and L.U. Arenson (eds.)]. A.A. Balkema, Lisse, the Netherlands, pp. 1029–1034.

Shepherd, A., D.J. Wingham, and J.A.D. Mansley, 2002: Inland thinning of the Amundsen Sea sector, West Antarctica. Geophys. Res. Lett., 29(10), 1364.

Shepherd, A., D. Wingham, and E. Rignot, 2004: Warm ocean is eroding West Antarctic Ice Sheet. Geophys. Res. Lett., 31(23), 1–4.

Shepherd, A., D. Wingham, T. Payne, and P. Skvarca, 2003: Larsen Ice Shelf has progressively thinned. Science, 302, 856–859.

Shy, T.L., and J.E. Walsh, 1996: North Pole ice thickness and association with ice motion history. Geophys. Res. Lett., 23(21), 2975–2978.

Sicart, J.E., P. Wagnon, and P. Ribstein, 2005: Atmospheric controls of the heat balance of Zongo Glacier (16°S, Bolivia). J. Geophys. Res., 110, D12106, doi:10.1029/2004JD005732.

Smith, L.C., 2000: Trends in Russian Arctic river-ice formation and breakup, 1917-1994. Phys. Geogr., 21, 46–56.

Smith, L.C., Y. Sheng, G.M. MacDonald, and L.D. Hinzman, 2005: Disappearing Arctic lakes. Science, 308, 1429.

Smith, N.V., S.S. Saatchi, and T. Randerson, 2004: Trends in high latitude soil freeze and thaw cycles from 1988 to 2002. J. Geophys. Res., 109, D12101, doi:10.1029/2003JD004472.

Smith, S.L., M.M. Burgess, and A.E. Taylor, 2003: High Arctic permafrost observatory at Alert, Nunavut – analysis of a 23 year data set. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Permafrost, 21-25 July 2003, Zurich, Switzerland [Phillips, M., S.M. Springman, and L.U. Arenson (eds.)]. A.A. Balkema, Lisse, the Netherlands, pp. 1073–1078.

Smith, S.L., M.M. Burgess, D. Riseborough, and F.M. Nixon, 2005: Recent trends from Canadian permafrost thermal monitoring network sites. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 16, 19–30.

Solomina, O., R. Barry, and M. Bodnya, 2004: The retreat of Tien Shan glaciers (Kyrgyzstan) since the Little Ice Age estimated from aerial photographs, lichonometric and historical data. Geografiska Annaler, 86A(2), 205–215.

Steffen, K., et al., 1992: The estimation of geophysical parameters using passive microwave algorithms. In: Microwave Remote Sensing of Sea Ice [Carsey, F.D. (ed.)]. Geophysical Monograph 68, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, pp 201–231.

Stewart, I.T., D.R. Cayan, and M.D. Dettinger, 2005: Changes towards earlier streamflow timing across western North America. J. Clim., 18, 1136–1155.

Stineman, R.W., 1980: A consistently well-behaved method of interpolation. Creative Computing, July 1980, 54–57.

Stone, J.O., et al., 2003: Holocene deglaciation of Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica. Science, 299, 99–102.

Stone, R.S., E.G. Dutton, J.M. Harris, and D. Longnecker, 2002: Earlier spring snowmelt in northern Alaska as an indicator of climate change. J. Geophys. Res., 107(D10), doi:10.1029/2000JD000286.

Su, Z., and Shi, Y., 2002: Response of monsoonal temperate glaciers to global warming since the Littel Ice Age. Quat. Int., 97–98, 123–131.

Thomas, R.H., 1979: The dynamics of marine ice sheets. J. Glaciol., 24, 167–177.

Thomas, R., 2004: Force-perturbation analysis of recent thinning and acceleration of Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland. J. Glaciol., 50, 57–66.

Thomas, R., et al., 2001: Mass balance of higher-elevation parts of the Greenland ice sheet. J. Geophys. Res., 106D, 33707–33716.

Thomas, R., et al., 2003: Investigation of surface melting and dynamic thinning on Jakobshavn Isbrae, Greenland. J. Glaciol., 49, 231–239.

Thomas, R., et al., 2004: Accelerated sea-level rise from West Antarctica. Science, 306(5694), 255–258.

Thomas, R., et al., 2006: Progressive increase in ice loss from Greenland. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L10503, doi: 10.1029/2006GL026075.

Thompson, D.W.J., and S. Solomon, 2002: Interpretation of recent Southern Hemisphere climate change. Science, 296, 895–899.

Thompson, L.G., et al., 2002: Kilimanjaro ice core records: Evidence of Holocene climate change in tropical Africa. Science, 298, 589–593.

Tucker, W.B. III, et al., 2001: Evidence for the rapid thinning of sea ice in the western Arctic Ocean at the end of the 1980s. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(14), 2851–2854.

Turner, J., et al., 2005: Antarctic climate change during the last 50 years. Int. J. Climatol., 25(3), 279–294.

van de Berg, W.J., M.R. van den Broeke, C.H. Reijmer, and E. van Meijgaard, 2006: Reassessment of the Antarctic surface mass balance using calibrated output of a regional atmospheric climate model. J. Geophys. Res., 111, D11104, doi:10.1029/2005JD006495.

van den Broeke, M.R., 2000: On the interpretation of Antarctic temperature trends. J. Clim., 13(21), 3885–3889.

van den Broeke, M.R., W.J. van de Berg, and E. van Meijgaard, 2006: Snowfall in coastal West Antarctica much greater than previously assumed. Geophys. Res. Lett., 33, L02505, doi:10.1029/2005GL025239.

Vaughan, D.G., et al., 2001: Climate change – Devil in the detail. Science, 293(5536), 1777–1779.

Vaughan, D.G., et al., 2003: Recent rapid regional climate warming on the Antarctic Peninsula. Clim. Change, 60, 243–274.

Velicogna, I., and J. Wahr, 2005: Greenland mass balance from GRACE. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L18505, doi:10.1029/2005GL023955.

Velicogna, I., and J. Wahr, 2006: Measurements of time variable gravity show mass loss in Antarctica. Science, 311(5768), 1754–1756, doi:10.1126/science.1123785.

Venegas, S.A., M.R. Drinkwater, and G. Shaffer, 2001: Coupled oscillations in Antarctic sea ice and atmosphere in the South Pacific sector. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28,(17), 3301–3304.

Vincent, C., E. Le Meur, D. Six, and M. Funk, 2005: Solving the paradox of the end of the Little Ice Age in the Alps. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L09706, doi:10.1029/2005GL022552.

Vinje, T., 2001: Anomalies and trends of sea ice extent and atmospheric circulation in the Nordic Seas during the period 1864-1998. J. Clim., 14, 255–267.

Vinje, T., N. Nordlund, and A. Kvambekk, 1998: Monitoring ice thickness in Fram Strait. J. Geophys. Res., 103(C5), 10437–10450.

Vojtek, M., P. Fasko, and P. St’astny, 2003: Some selected snow climate trends in Slovakia with respect to altitude. Acta Meteorologica Universitatis Comenianae, 32, 17–27.

Vonder Mühll, D., J. Nötzli, K. Makowski, and R. Delaloye, 2004: Permafrost in Switzerland 2000/2001 and 2001/2002. Glaciological Report (Permafrost) No. 2/3, Glaciological Commission of the Swiss Academy of Sciences, Zurich, 86 pp.

Wadhams, P., 1992: Sea ice thickness distribution in the Greenland Sea and Eurasian Basin, May 1987. J. Geophys. Res., 97, 5331–5348.

Wagnon, P., P. Ribstein, B. Francou, and J.E. Sicart, 2001. Anomalous heat and mass budget of Glaciar Zongo, Bolivia during the 1997/98 El Niño year. J. Glaciol., 47(156), 21–28.

Walsh, J., et al., 2005: Cryosphere and hydrology. In: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, pp. 183–242.

Wang, S., 2002: Permafrost degradation, desertification and CH4 release. In: Dynamic Characteristic of Cryosphere in the Central Section of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau [Yao, T., et al. (eds.)]. Geology Press, Beijing, 234–255 (in Chinese).

Wang, S., and Zhao, X., 1997: Environmental change in patchy permafrost zone in the south section of Qinghai-Tibet Highway. J. Glaciol. Geocryol., 19, 231–239 (in Chinese).

Warren, S.G., et al., 1999: Snow depth on arctic sea ice. J. Clim., 12, 1814–1829.

WGMS(ICSI-IAHS), various years-a: Fluctuations of Glaciers. World Glacier Monitoring Service, Zurich.

WGMS(ICSI-IAHS), various years-b: Mass Balance Bulletin. World Glacier Monitoring Service, Zurich, http://www.wgms.ch/mbb.html.

Winsor, P., 2001: Arctic sea ice thickness remained constant during the 1990s. Geophys. Res. Lett., 28(6), 1039–1041.

Worby, A.P., and S.F. Ackley, 2000: Antarctic research yields circumpolar sea ice thickness data. Eos, 81(17), 181, 184–185.

Worby, A.P., and J.C. Comiso, 2004: Studies of the Antarctic sea ice edge and ice extent from satellite and ship observations. Remote Sensing of Environment, 92, 98–111.

Wu, Q., and Y. Liu, 2003: Ground temperature monitoring and its recent change in Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Cold Regions Sci. Technol., 18, 85–92.

Ye, H.C., and M. Ellison, 2003: Changes in transitional snowfall season length in northern Eurasia. Geophys. Res. Lett., 30(5), 1252.

Yoshikawa, K., and L.D. Hinzman, 2003: Shrinking thermokarst ponds and groundwater dynamics in discontinuous permafrost. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 14(2), 151–160.

Yu, Y., G.A. Maykut, and D.A. Rothrock, 2004: Changes in the thickness distribution of Arctic sea ice between 1958-1970 and 1993-1997. J. Geophys. Res., 109, C08004, doi:10.1029/2003JC001982.

Zemp, M., R. Frauenfelder, W. Haeberli, and M. Hoelzle, 2005: Worldwide glacier mass balance measurements: general trends and first results of the extraordinary year 2003 in Central Europe. In: XIII Glaciological Symposium, Shrinkage of the Glaciosphere: Facts and Analyses, St. Petersburg, Russia [Science, R.A.O. (ed.)]. Data of Glaciological Studies [Materialy glyatsiologicheskikh issledovaniy], Moscow, Russia, pp. 3–12.

Zhang, T., 2005: Influence of the seasonal snow cover on the ground thermal regime: An overview. Rev. Geophys., 43, RG4002, doi:10.1029/2004RG000157.

Zhang, T., et al., 1999: Statistics and characteristics of permafrost and ground-ice distribution in the Northern Hemisphere. Polar Geogr., 23(2), 132–154.

Zhang, T., et al., 2003: Distribution of seasonally and perennially frozen ground in the Northern Hemisphere. In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Permafrost, 21-25 July 2003, Zurich, Switzerland [Phillips, M., S.M. Springman, and L.U. Arenson (eds.)]. A.A. Balkema, Lisse, the Netherlands, pp. 1289–1294.

Zhang, T., et al., 2005: Spatial and temporal variability in active layer thickness over the Russian Arctic drainage basin. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D16101, doi:10.1029/2004JD005642.

Zhang, X., L.A. Vincent, W.D. Hogg, and A. Niitsoo, 2000: Temperature and precipitation trends in Canada during the 20th century. Atmos-Ocean, 38(3), 395–429.

Zhang, X., K.D. Harvey, W.D. Hogg, and T.R. Yuzyk, 2001: Trends in Canadian streamflow. Water Resour. Res., 37(4), 987–998.

Zhang, Y.S., T. Li, and B. Wang, 2004: Decadal change of the spring snow depth over the Tibetan Plateau: The associated circulation and influence on the East Asian summer monsoon. J. Clim., 17(14), 2780–2793.

Zhao, L., G. Cheng, and Li, S., 2003: Changes of plateau frozen-ground and environmental engineering effects. In: The Formation Environment and Development of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau [Zheng, D., et al. (eds)]. Heibei Science and Technology Press, Shijiazhang, pp. 143–150 (in Chinese).

Zhao, L., et al., 2004: Changes of climate and seasonally frozen ground over the past 30 years in Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau, China. Global Planet. Change, 43, 19–31.

Zhou, Y., X. Gao, and Y. Wang,1996: The ground temperature changes of seasonally freeze-thaw layers and climate warming in Northeast China in the past 40 years. In: Proceeding of the 5th Chinese Conference on Glaciology and Geocryology (Volume 1). Gansu Culture Press, Lanzhou, pp. 3–9 (in Chinese).

Zwally, H.J., et al., 2002: Surface melt-induced acceleration of Greenland ice-sheet flow. Science, 297(5579), 218–222.

Zwally, H.J., et al., 2006: Mass changes of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets and shelves and contributions to sea level rise: 1992-2002. J. Glaciol., 51, 509–527.