Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry

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Chapter 4: Additional Human-Induced Activities-Article 3.4


4.1. Introduction and Context

4.2. Processes and Time Scales

4.2.1. Land Use, Management, and Ecosystem Carbon Balances
4.2.2. Soil Carbon Dynamics

4.3. Choices Relating to Inclusion and Definition of Activities

4.3.1. Which Additional Activities are to Be Included?
4.3.2. How Broadly or Narrowly are "Activities" Defined?
4.3.3. Land-Based versus Practice-Based Accounting
4.3.4. Measuring "Human-Induced" Effects of Activities
4.3.5. Applying Decision to the First Commitment Period

4.4. Activities Categorized and Described

4.4.1. Overview of Rates and Duration of Potential Carbon Sequestration
4.4.2. Cropland Management
4.4.3. Grazing Lands Management
4.4.4. Agroforestry
4.4.5. Forest Management
4.4.6. Wetlands Management
4.4.7. Restoration of Severely Degraded Lands
4.4.8. Urban and Peri-Urban Land Management

4.5. Biofuels and Forest Products

4.5.1. Introduction
4.5.2. CO2 Sequestration versus Fossil Fuel Substitution
4.5.3. Global Scenarios for Biomass Energy
4.5.4. Land Availability
4.5.5. Associated Impacts
4.5.6. Forest Products

4.6. How to Include Activities under Article 3.4: Modalities, Rules, and Guidelines

4.6.1. "Since 1990"
4.6.2. "Measured as.changes in carbon stocks in each commitment period"
4.6.3. Reference Year, "Additionality," and Baseline Issues
4.6.4. Banking of Emissions Offsets
4.6.5. Capturing Both Increases and Decreases in Carbon Stocks
4.6.6. Adjusting Credits from Changes in Carbon Stocks

4.7. Technical Issues Related to Implementation of Article 3.4

4.7.1. Assessing Activities
4.7.2. Examples
4.7.3. Additional Technical Considerations for Implementing Article 3.4


Fact Sheet 4.1. Agricultural Intensification and Carbon Inputs

Fact Sheet 4.2. Irrigation Water Management

Fact Sheet 4.3. Conservation Tillage

Fact Sheet 4.4. Erosion-Control Practices

Fact Sheet 4.5. Management of Rice Cultivation

Fact Sheet 4.6. Grazing Management

Fact Sheet 4.7. Protected Grasslands and Set-Asides

Fact Sheet 4.8. Grassland Productivity Improvements

Fact Sheet 4.9. Fire Management in Grasslands

Fact Sheet 4.10. Agroforests at the Margins of the Humid Tropics

Fact Sheet 4.11. Replenishing Soil Fertility through Agroforestry in Subhumid Tropical Africa

Fact Sheet 4.12. Forest Regeneration

Fact Sheet 4.13. Forest Fertilization

Fact Sheet 4.14. Forest Fire Management

Fact Sheet 4.15. Pest Management

Fact Sheet 4.16. Forest Harvest Quantity and Timing

Fact Sheet 4.17. Low-Impact Forest Harvesting

Fact Sheet 4.18. Restoration of Former Wetlands

Fact Sheet 4.19. Restoration of Severely Degraded Land

Fact Sheet 4.20. Sequestration/Displacement Tradeoff

Fact Sheet 4.21. Biofuel Produced from Planted Land

Fact Sheet 4.22. Energy By-Products from Food and Fiber Wastes

R. Neil Sampson (USA) and Robert J. Scholes (South Africa)

Lead Authors:
C. Cerri (Brazil), L. Erda (China), D.O. Hall (UK), M. Handa (Japan), P. Hill (USA), M. Howden (Australia), H. Janzen (Canada), J. Kimble (USA), R. Lal (USA), G. Marland (USA), K. Minami (Japan), K. Paustian (USA), P. Read (New Zealand), P.A. Sanchez (Kenya), C. Scoppa (Argentina), B. Solberg (Norway), M.A. Trossero (FAO), S. Trumbore (USA), O. Van Cleemput (Belgium), A. Whitmore (UK), D. Xu (China)

B. Burrows (Australia), R. Conant (USA), G. Liping (China), W. Hall (Australia), W. Kaegi (Switzerland), P. Reyenga (Australia), N. Roulet (Canada), K.E. Skog (USA), G.R. Smith (USA), Y. Wang (China)

Review Editors:
J.W.B. Stewart (Canada) and J. Stone (Canada)

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