Methodological and Technological Issues in Technology Transfer

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4. Enabling Environments for Technology Transfer

Executive Summary

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Policy Tools for Technology Transfer

4.3 National Systems of Innovation and Technology Infrastructure

4.4 Social Infrastructure: the Need for Participatory Approaches

4.4.1 The growth of NGOs
4.4.2 Developing Partnerships through Participation
4.4.3 How Participation has Developed
4.4.4 What is Participation and Why is it Needed?
4.4.5 What Can Participation Achieve?
4.4.6 Participation and Climate-Relevant Technology Transfer: Current Discussions

4.5 Human and Institutional Capacities

4.5.1 Capacity-building for mitigation - an overview
4.5.2 Capacity-building for assessment, agreement, and implementation stages
4.5.3 Capacity-building for evaluation and adjustment and repetition stages
4.5.4 Capacity building: the needs in both developed and developing countries
4.5.5 Capacity building for adaptation
4.5.6 Capacity Building: Current Issues

4.6 Macroeconomic Policy Frameworks

4.7 Sustainable Markets for Environmentally Sound Technologies

4.8 National Legal Institutions

4.8.1 Intellectual Property Rights
4.8.2 Managing Contractual, Property and Regulatory Risks
4.8.3 Governance and Corruption

4.9 Codes, Standards and Certification

4.9.1 Standards
4.9.2 Certification
4.9.3 Minimum Environmental Performance Standards

4.10 Equity Considerations

4.10.1 Equity and the Technology Transfer Issue
4.10.2 Problems Associated with Equity

4.11 Rights to Productive Resources

4.11.1 Experience from Agricultural Technologies
4.11.2 Experience from Forestry and Use of Other Natural Resources

4.12 Research and Technology Development

4.12.1 Publicly-funded Research and Publicly-owned Technology
4.12.2 Policy and Institutional Environment
4.12.3 RTD and the Innovation Process

4.13 Conclusions


Coordinating Lead Authors:
Merylyn McKenzie Hedger (UK), Eric Martinot (USA), Tongroj Onchan (Thailand)

Lead Authors:
Dilip Ahuja (India), Weerawat Chantanakome (Thailand), Michael Grubb (UK), Joyeeta Gupta (The Netherlands), Tom Heller (USA), Li Junfeng (China), Mark Mansley (UK), Charles Mehl (USA), Bhaskhar Natarajan (India), Theodore Panayotou (USA), John Turkson (Ghana), David Wallace (United Kingdom)

Contributing Author:
Richard J.T. Klein (the Netherlands/Germany)

Review Editor:
Karen R. Polenske (USA)

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