Working Group III: Mitigation

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Chapter 3 Appendix
Options to Reduce Global Warming Contributions from Substitutes for Ozone-Depleting Substances


Executive Summary

A3.1 Introduction

A3.1.1 Past Trends
A3.1.2 Projections

A3.2 Refrigeration, Air Conditioning, and Heat Pumps

A3.2.1 Mobile Air Conditioning
A3.2.1.1 Estimates of Global HFC-134a Emissions
A3.2.1.2 Strategies for Reducing Emissions and Improving Energy Efficiency of HFC-134a Systems
A3.2.1.3 Strategies for Developing Efficient Alternative Air Conditioning Systems
A3.2.1.4 Cost-Effectiveness of Reducing Emissions from Vehicle Air Conditioning
A3.2.2 Domestic Appliances
A3.2.3 Commercial Refrigeration
A3.2.4 Residential and Commercial Air Conditioning and Heating
A3.2.5 Food processing, Cold Storage and Other Industrial Refrigeration Equipment
A3.2.6 Transport Refrigeration
A3.2.7 Summary of Alternative Refrigerant Use

A3.3 Foams

A3.3.1 Insulating Foams
A3.3.2 Insulating Foams in Appliances
A3.3.3 Insulating Foams in Residential Buildings
A3.3.4 Insulating Foams in Commercial Buildings
A3.3.5 Insulating Foams in Transportation
A3.3.6 Other Insulating Foams
A3.3.7 Non-Insulating Foams

A3.4 Solvents and Cleaning Agents

A3.5 Aerosol Products

A3.5.1 Medical Applications
A3.5.2 Cosmetic, Convenience, and Technical Aerosol Propellants

A3.6 Fire Protection

A3.7 Developing Countries and Countries with Economies in Transition

A3.7.1 Technology Selection
A3.7.2 Impact of Replacement Technology Options in Montreal Protocol MLF Projects
A3.7.2.1 Foams Sector
A3.7.2.2 Refrigeration Sector
A3.7.3 General Concerns and Opportunities


Lead Authors:
Stephen O. Andersen (USA), Suely Maria Machado Carvalho (Brazil), Sukumar Devotta (India), Yuichi Fujimoto (Japan), Jochen Harnisch (Germany), Barbara Kucnerowicz-Polak (Poland), Lambert Kuijpers (Netherlands), Mack McFarland (USA), William Moomaw (USA), Jose Roberto Moreira (Brazil)

Contributing Authors:
Paul Ashford (UK), Paul J. Atkins (UK), James A. Baker (USA), Kornelis Blok (Netherlands), Denis Clodic (France), Abid Merchant (USA), E. Thomas Morehouse Jr. (USA), Sally Rand (USA), Robert J. Russell (USA), Remko Ybema (Netherlands)

Review Editors:
Ramon Pichs-Madruga (Cuba), Hisashi Ishitani (Japan)

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