IPCC Fourth Assessment Report: Climate Change 2007
Climate Change 2007: Working Group III: Mitigation of Climate Change

7.2 Industrial mitigation matrix

A wide range of technologies have the potential for reducing industrial GHG emissions (high agreement, much evidence). They can be grouped into categories, for example energy efficiency, fuel switching and power recovery. Within each category, some technologies, such as the use of more efficient electric motors and motor systems, are broadly applicable across all industries; while others, such as top-gas pressure recovery in blast furnaces, are process-specific. Table 7.5 presents selected examples of both classes of technologies for a number of industries. The table is not comprehensive and does not cover all industries or GHG mitigation technologies.

Table 7.5: Selected examples of industrial technology for reducing greenhouse-gas emissions (not comprehensive). Technologies in italics are under demonstration or development

Sector Energy efficiency Fuel switching Power recovery Renewables Feedstock change Product change Material efficiency Non-CO2 GHG CO2 sequestration 
Sector wide Benchmarking; Energy management systems; Efficient motor systems, boilers, furnaces, lighting and HVAC; Process integration Coal to natural gas and oil Cogeneration Biomass, Biogas, PV, Wind turbines, Hydropower Recycled inputs       Oxy-fuel combustion, CO2 separation from flue gas 
Iron & Steel Smelt reduction, Near net shape casting, Scrap preheating, Dry coke quenching Natural gas, oil or plastic injection into the BF Top-gas pressure recovery, Byproduct gas combined cycle Charcoal Scrap High strength steel Recycling, High strength steel, Reduction process losses n.a. Hydrogen reduction, Oxygen use in blast furnaces 
Non-Ferrous Metals Inert anodes, Efficient cell designs       Scrap   Recycling, thinner film and coating PFC/SF6 controls   
Chemicals Membrane separations, Reactive distillation Natural gas Pre-coupled gas turbine, Pressure recovery turbine, H2 recovery   Recycled plastics, biofeedstock Linear low density polyethylene, high-performance Plastics Recycling, Thinner film and coating, Reduced process losses N2O, PFCs, CFCs and HFCs control Application to ammonia, ethylene oxide processes 
Petroleum Refining Membrane separation Refinery gas Natural gas Pressure recovery turbine, hydrogen recovery Biofuels Bio-feedstock   Increased efficiency transport sector Control technology for N2O/CH4 From hydrogen production 
Cement Precalciner kiln, Roller mill, fluidized bed kiln Waste fuels, Biogas, Biomass Drying with gas turbine, power recovery Biomass fuels, Biogas Slags, pozzolanes Blended cement Geo-polymers   n.a. O2 combustion in kiln 
Glass Cullet preheating Oxyfuel furnace Natural gas Air bottoming cycle n.a. Increased cullet use High-strength thin containers Re-usable containers n.a. O2 combustion 
Pulp and Paper Efficient pulping, Efficient drying, Shoe press, Condebelt drying Biomass, Landfill gas Black liquor gasification combined cycle Biomass fuels (bark, black liquor) Recycling, Non-wood fibres Fibre orientation, Thinner paper Reduction cutting and process losses n.a. O2 combustion in lime kiln 
Food Efficient drying, Membranes Biogas, Natural gas Anaerobic digestion, Gasification Biomass, Biogas, Solar drying     Reduction process losses, Closed water use