Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability

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4. Hydrology and Water Resources Contents

Executive Summary

4.1. Introduction and Scope

4.2. State of Knowledge of Climate Change Impacts on Hydrology and Water Resources: Progress since the Second Assessment Report

4.2.1. Introduction
4.2.2. Estimating the Impacts of Climate Change
4.2.3. Increased Awareness of the Effect of Climatic Variability on Hydrology and Water Resources
4.2.4. Adaptation to Climate Change in the Water Sector

4.3. Effects on the Hydrological Cycle

4.3.1. Introduction
4.3.2. Precipitation
4.3.3. Evaporation
4.3.4. Soil Moisture
4.3.5. Groundwater Recharge and Resources
4.3.6. River Flows Trends in Observed Streamflow Effects of Climate Change on River Flows Cold and cool temperate climates Mild temperate climates Arid and semi-arid regions Humid tropical regions
4.3.7. Lakes
4.3.8. Changes in Flood Frequency
4.3.9. Changes in Hydrological Drought Frequency
4.3.10. Water Quality
4.3.11. Glaciers and Small Ice Caps
4.3.12. River Channel Form and Stability
4.3.13. Climate Change and Climatic Variability

4.4. Effects on Water Withdrawals

4.4.1. Introduction
4.4.2. World Water Use
4.4.3. Sensitivity of Demand to Climate Change

4.5. Impacts on Water Resources and Hazards

4.5.1. Introduction
4.5.2. Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources: A Global Perspective
4.5.3. Catchment and System Case Studies
4.5.4. Impacts of Climate Change on Water Resources: An Overview

4.6. Adaptation Options and Management Implications

4.6.1. Introduction
4.6.2. Water Management Options
4.6.3. Implications of Climate Change for Water Management Policy
4.6.4. Factors Affecting Adaptive Capacity
4.6.5. Adaptation to Climate Change in the Water Sector: An Overview

4.7. Integration: Water and Other Sectors

4.7.1. The Nonclimate Context
4.7.2. Water and Other Related Sectors Ecosystems (TAR Chapter 5) Coastal and Marine Zones (TAR Chapter 6) Settlements (TAR Chapter 7) Financial Services (TAR Chapter 8) Health (TAR Chapter 9)
4.7.3. Water and Conflict

4.8. Science and Information Needs

4.8.1. Introduction
4.8.2. Estimating Future Impacts of Climate Change
4.8.3. Adapting to Climate Change



Lead Authors:
R. Compagnucci (Argentina), L. da Cunha (Portugal), K. Hanaki (Japan), C. Howe (USA), G. Mailu (Kenya), I. Shiklomanov (Russia), E. Stakhiv (USA)

Contributing Author:
P. Döll (Germany)

Review Editors:
A. Becker (Germany) and Jianyun Zhang (China)

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