Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability

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13. Europe


Executive Summary

13.1. The European Region

13.1.1. Previous Work
13.1.2. What Is Different about the European Region? Geography, Population, Environment Economy
13.1.3. Recent Climate Variability in Europe, including Recent Warming Temperature Precipitation Extreme Events North Atlantic Oscillation
13.1.4. Key Sensitivities to Climate and Weather Now Extreme Seasons Exceptionally hot, dry summers Mild winters Short-Duration Hazards Coastal Squeeze
13.1.5. Climate Scenarios for the Future Scenario Provision Scenarios for Europe

13.1.6. Socioeconomic Scenarios for Europe

13.2. Key Regional Concerns

13.2.1. Water and Land Resources Water Resources Changes in hydrological cycle Water management Soils and Land Resources Soil physical properties Land degradation processes Biologically mediated soil properties Coastal Zones Mountains and Subarctic Environments
13.2.2. Semi-Natural Ecosystems and Forests Forests Growth trends Disturbance regimes Grasslands and Rangelands Freshwater Ecosystems: Inland Wetlands, Lakes, and Streams Biodiversity and Nature Conservation Migratory Animals
13.2.3. Agriculture and Fisheries Agriculture Fisheries Freshwater and marine biodiversity Fisheries and aquaculture productivity
13.2.4. Other Impact Areas Energy Insurance Industry and Transport Tourism Migrations
13.2.5. Human Health Thermal Stress and Air Pollution Vector-Borne Diseases Water-Related Diseases Food-Borne Diseases Health Implications of Floods

13.3. Adaptation Potential

13.3.1. Water
13.3.2. Soils
13.3.3. Ecosystems
13.3.4. Agriculture Short-Term Adjustments Long-Term Adaptations

13.3.5. Coastal Regions

13.4. Synthesis

13.4.1. Key Impacts
13.4.2. Uncertainty
13.4.3. Research Needs
13.4.4. Regional Issues Extreme Events Subregional Impacts Sustainability and Equity


Zbigniew W. Kundzewicz (Poland) and Martin L. Parry (UK)

Lead Authors:
W. Cramer (Germany), J.I. Holten (Norway), Z. Kaczmarek (Poland), P. Martens (The Netherlands), R.J. Nicholls (UK), M. Öquist (Sweden), M.D.A. Rounsevell (Belgium), J. Szolgay (Slovakia)

Contributing Authors:
N.W. Arnell (UK), G. Balint (Hungary), M. Beniston (Switzerland), G. Berz (Germany), M. Bindi (Italy), T.R. Carter (Finland), S. des Clers (UK), H.Q.P. Crick (UK), A.F. Dlugolecki (UK), T. Dockerty (UK), M. Gottfried (Austria), G. Grabherr (Austria), A. Guisan (Switzerland), M. Hulme (UK), P. Imeson (Netherlands), J. Jenik (Czech Republic), A. Jordan (UK), A. Kedziora (Poland), S. Kovats (UK), S. Lavorel (France), M. Livermore (UK), J. Lowe (UK), J.P. Martinez Rica (Spain), U. Molau (Sweden), I. Nemesova (Czech Republic), J.E. Olesen (Denmark), J.P. Palutikof (UK), H. Pauli (Austria), A.H. Perry (UK), L. Ryszkowski (Poland), S.A. Shchuka (Russia), A.Z. Shvidenko (Austria), S. Tapsell (UK), J.-P. Theurillat (Switzerland), A. De la Vega-Leinert (UK), A.A. Velichko (Russia), L. Villar (Spain)

Review Editors:
M.J. de Seixas (Portugal) and S. Kellomäki (Finland)

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