Working Group III: Mitigation

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3. Technological and Economic Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction


Executive Summary

3.1 Introduction

3.2 Drivers of Technological Change and Innovation

3.3 Buildings

3.3.1 Introduction
3.3.2 Summary of the Second Assessment Report
3.3.3 Historic and Future Trends
3.3.4 New Technological and Other Options Integrated Building Design Reducing Standby Power Losses in Appliances and Equipment Photovoltaic Systems for Buildings Distributed Power Generation for Buildings

3.3.5 Regional Differences
3.3.6 Technological and Economic Potential
3.3.7 Conclusions

3.4 Transport and Mobility

3.4.1 Introduction
3.4.2 Summary of the Second Assessment Report
3.4.3 Historic and Future Trends
3.4.4 New Technology and Other Options Hybrid Electric Vehicles Lower Weight Structural Materials Direct Injection Gasoline and Diesel Engines Automotive Fuel Cells Fuel Cycle Emissions Use of Biofuels Aircraft Technology Waterborne Transport Truck Freight Systems Approaches to Sustainability
3.4.5 Regional Differences
3.4.6 Technological and Economic Potential
3.4.7 Conclusions

3.5 Manufacturing Industry

3.5.1 Introduction
3.5.2 Summary of the Second Assessment Report
3.5.3 Historic and Future Trends Energy Efficiency Improvement Fuel Switching Renewable Energy Carbon Dioxide Removal Material Efficiency Improvement
3.5.4 New Technology and Other Options Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Industrial Processes PFC Emissions from Aluminium Production PFCs and other Substances Used in Semiconductor Production HFC-23 Emissions from HCFC-22 Production Emissions of SF6 from the Production, Use and Decommissioning of Gas Insulated Switchgear Emissions of SF6 from Magnesium Production and Casting Some Smaller Non-CO2 Emission Reduction Options Summary of Manufacturing Industry GHG Emission Reduction Options
3.5.5 Regional Differences China Japan Latin America USA and Canada Africa Western Europe
3.5.6 Conclusions

3.6 Agriculture and Energy Cropping

3.6.1 Introduction
3.6.2 Summary of the Second Assessment Report
3.6.3 Historic and Future Trends
3.6.4 New Technological and Other Options Uptake of Management Techniques Uptake of New Technologies Energy Cropping Crop and Animal Wastes Behavioural Changes

3.6.5 Regional Differences
3.6.6 Technological and Economic Potential

3.7 Waste

3.7.1 Summary of the Second Assessment Report
3.7.2 Historic and Future Trends Landfills Recycling and Reuse Composting and Digestion Incineration Waste Water
3.7.3 New Technological and other Options Landfill Management Recycling Composting Incineration Wastewater Treatment
3.7.4 Regional Differences Germany United States Japan India China Africa

3.7.5 Technological and Economic Potential

3.8 Energy Supply, Including Non-renewable and Renewable Resources and Physical CO2 Removal

3.8.1 Introduction
3.8.2 Summary of the Second Assessment Report
3.8.3 Historic Trends and Driving Forces
3.8.4 New Technological Options Fossil Fuelled Electricity Generation Nuclear Power Renewable Energy Conversion Technologies Technical CO2 Removal and Sequestration Emissions from Production, Transport, Conversion and Distribution

3.8.5 Regional Differences Privatization and Deregulation of the Electricity Sector Developing Country Issues Distributed Systems

3.8.6 Technological and Economic Potential

3.8.7 Conclusions

3.9 Summary and Conclusions



Co-ordinating Lead Authors:

Lead Authors:
Kornelis Blok (Netherlands), David L. Greene (USA), Ken Gregory (UK), Thomas Jaszay (Hungary), Takao Kashiwagi (Japan), Mark Levine (USA), Mack McFarland (USA), N. Siva Prasad (India), Lynn Price (USA), Hans-Holger Rogner (Germany), Ralph Sims (New Zealand), Fengqi Zhou (China), Peter Zhou (Botswana)

Contributing Authors:
Frank Ackerman (USA), Erik Alsema (Netherlands), Harry Audus (IEA GHG), Jeroen de Beer (Netherlands), Ranjan K. Bose (India), John Davison (IEA GHG), Paul Freund (IEA GHG), Jochen Harnisch (Germany), Gilberto de M. Jannuzzi (Brazil), Anja Kollmuss (Switzerland), Changsheng Li (USA), Evan Mills (USA), Kiyoyuki Minato (Japan), Steve Plotkin (USA), Sally Rand (USA), A. Schafer (USA), David Victor (USA), Arnaldo C. Walter (Brazil), John J. Wise (USA), Remko Ybema (Netherlands)

Review Editors:
Ramon Pichs-Madruga (Cuba), Hisashi Ishitani (Japan)

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